A series of 10  illustrations for my illustration thesis project "Cosmos". The topic illustrates the mundane daily interactions within society reflects with conflicts between bordering countries throughout history, indicating the invariable nature of all human conflicts regardless of the scale.





The illustration compares manspreading on subway as the migrant issue between the U.S. and its South American neighbours.

I make the best of both the analogue and digital media. I created the character in traditional media with gouache and coloured pencil, then assemble them digitally.

The view outside the window is inspired by the wild west of the United States, specifically the layered pattern from the Palo Duro Canyon in Texas.

During the long commute to work, a typical middle-class working man must have a newspaper in hand.




The illustration compares neighbours' backyard issue to the water conflict between Israel and Palestine.

The land that was known as Canaan signifies historical and cultural importance to both Israelities and Palestinians. The two ethnicities all have reasonable claims to the land, yet all sides want the land exclusively as their own. Just as Noa Baum's book title has suggested, it is  A Land Twice Promised.




The illustration compares a disastrous fireworks event to the Siege of Melos during the Peloponnesian War.

In History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides records the famous speech delievered during Siege of Melos, the Melian dialogue.

Athens is remembered in history as the birthplace of a democratic government. This title is as splendid  as fireworks, but little did we see behind this glory lies a shower of hellfire for the suppressed minority, the Melians.

"The strong do what they can, and the weak must suffer what they must." 

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War.




The illustration compares the Korean tradition of Dojabi (fortune telling ritual through toy picking) to the Korean war.

It is true that before and during the Korean war, Koreans were divided between the left, supported by the Soviet Union and the right, supported by the United States, but they were merely the instruments of the division thrust on them. But animosity and rivalry between the North and the South developed to the extent that they were engaged in a fratricidal war (some call it a proxy war) supported by their respective guardians.

History, Politics, and Policy in the U.S. - Korea Alliance. Keynote Address by Dr. Han Sung-joo. The Brookings Institution. November 17, 2014                    




The illustration records the Partition of India and Pakistan with truck art, portraying the interseting culture and history between the two countries.

"The aftermath of a poorly divided border, divided of a group that shares cultural similarities."

Verkaaik, Oskar. American Ethologist, vol. 36, no.2, 2009, pp. 421-422. JSTOR,

Truck art is an expressive way for truck drivers to identify themselves. Truck drivers often individualize their mobile homes with their religion, family, faourite stars, etc.

Truck is like a moving billboard, It carries the message of the truck driver and owner while travelling from one location to another.




The illustration compares the famous Three Kingdoms period (220-280 AD) to a three-player arcade game, alluding to the race to unite anicent China (portrayed as the dragon) between tripartite division among the states of Wei, Shu, Wu.

The Three Kingdoms period is popularized by Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the famous historical novel written by Luo guanzhong. The novel is a romanticised record that features part historical, part legend, and part mythical characters and plots. Because of its unique script, the story has been adapted into many TV-shows, movies, graphic novels, video games, etc.

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